MEMORANDUM OF DECISION
MARVIN J. GARBIS, District Judge.
The Court has conducted a bench trial of Plaintiff's claims against Defendants Manuel Alban ("Mr. Alban") and Lola Alban ("Mrs. Alban") (collectively "the Albans"), ("Loma") and Servicios LatinoAmericanos De Maryland, Inc. ("Servicios"). The Court has heard the evidence presented, reviewed the exhibits, considered the materials submitted by the parties, and had the benefit of the arguments of counsel. The Court now issues this Memorandum of Decision as its findings of fact and conclusions of law in compliance with Rule 52(a) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.
The Court finds the facts stated herein based upon its evaluation of the evidence, including the credibility of witnesses, and the inferences that the Court has found reasonable to draw from the evidence.
For some ten years, from 2001 to 2011, Defendants Manuel Alban ("Mr. Alban") and Lola Alban ("Mrs. Alban") (collectively "the Albans"), being neither qualified nor accredited to do so, operated an immigration business serving - or in all too many cases disserving - Spanish-speaking customers. Furthermore, Mr. Alban, on occasion, engaged in the unauthorized practice - or malpractice - of law.
On June 1, 2011, the United States Federal Trade Commission ("FTC") filed the instant suit alleging that the Defendants knowingly violated Section 5(a) of the Federal Trade Commission Act ("FTC Act"), 15 U.S.C. § 45(a), by expressly and impliedly misrepresenting to consumers that they were authorized immigration service providers, although they were not.
The FTC seeks to have the Court permanently enjoin the Defendants from violating § 5(a) of the FTC Act by engaging in unauthorized immigration services or any similar deceptive practice and seeks restitution in the amount of $750, 000. As discussed herein, the Court finds that the FTC has established the need for injunctive relief against the Albans. However, the Court finds it necessary to conduct further proceedings to resolve remaining issues relating to the equitable relief to be provided.
II. STATUTORY FRAMEWORK
Section 5(a) of the Federal Trade Commission Act ("the FTC Act") states, in pertinent part:
(a) Declaration of unlawfulness; power to prohibit unfair practices; inapplicability to foreign trade
(1) Unfair methods of competition in or affecting commerce, and unfair or deceptive acts or practices in or affecting commerce, are hereby declared unlawful.
(2) The Commission is hereby empowered and directed to prevent persons, partnerships, or corporations, [with stated exceptions] from using unfair methods of competition in or affecting commerce and unfair or deceptive acts or practices in or affecting commerce.
(B) All remedies available to the Commission with respect to unfair and deceptive acts or practices shall be available for acts and practices described in this paragraph, including restitution to domestic or foreign victims.
15 U.S.C. § 45(a) (West 2006).
Section 13(b) of the FTC Act provides that "in proper cases the Commission may seek, and after proper proof, the court may issue, a permanent injunction." 15 U.S.C. § 53(b).
The Albans emigrated to the United States from Ecuador in the mid-1960's and became United States citizens. Mr. Alban was employed in the plastics industry until his retirement in the mid-1990's, and Mrs. Alban worked for a bank from 1973 until she retired in 2002.
After his retirement, Mr. Alban, together with others in the local Hispanic community, set up a Spanish-speaking radio station. The business did not succeed.
The Albans, in or about 1993, set up a Spanish-language newspaper called "El Heraldo." The Albans named the advertising arm of El Heraldo "Loma, Inc." although the entity was not a corporation. The newspaper ceased operations in 2004.
Mr. Alban testified that in or about 2000, he attended an immigration seminar and was told that he did not need to be an attorney to assist with filling out immigration forms but that he needed to apply to the Executive Office for Immigration Review to be an accredited representative. M. Alban Dep. 239:21-243:15, Pl.'s Ex. 30. In early 2001, Mr. Alban became aware that the pertinent agency of the United States government provided that citizens of El Salvador and Honduras could apply for Temporary Protection Status ("TPS") benefits. Although Mr. Alban had been informed that he needed formal accreditation to do so, the Albans then began their immigration service business discussed herein without obtaining any such accreditation. The Albans operated the immigration service business under the name "Loma, Inc."
In or about 2002, Mr. Alban attended a tax preparation seminar and obtained authorization to prepare income tax returns. He provided the income tax preparation and filing services under the "Loma, Inc." name.
At about the same time, Mr. Alban began to provide drug and alcohol counseling to members of the Hispanic community. This business was operated under the name "Servicios LatinoAmericanos De Maryland, Inc." although, as with Loma, Inc., the name did not then refer to an existing corporation.
In 2005, Mr. Alban prepared and signed incorporation papers for corporations to be named "Loma International Business Group, Inc." and "Servicios LatinoAmericanos De Maryland, Inc." In 2007, the papers were filed and the corporations were formed. Mr. Alban was ...